There are three types of Bone Marrow or Stem Cells Transplants.
  • Autologous
  • Allogeneic
  • Syngeneic


In an Autologous Transplant, the stem cells you receive are your own. There is no need for a donor. In this procedure, your bone marrow stem cells are removed from your blood before you undergo high-dose chemotherapy. The stem cells are then stored in a freezer until the time of the transplant. the autologous transplant is commonly performed for

  • Lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Amyloidosis
  • And certain types of leukemia.

An autologous transplant requires your bone marrow free of disease and functioning properly.


In an allogeneic transplant, healthy stem cells taken from a donor that matches your blood cells. The stem cells are then transplanted back to you. Special blood tests called human leukocyte antigen typing are done to determine whether or not the donor’s cells match yours. It is important that the stem cells of the donor match those of your blood cells as perfectly as possible. If the blood cells are not matched, donor cells and your
cells can attack each other. This can cause rejection of the marrow and/or an attack on your organs. The search for donors usually begins from brothers and sisters who have the same parents as you do. If a brother or sister matches you on all six HLA sites, he or she is considered a good match.


In a synthetic transplant, the stem cells would be taken from identical twins, if one were available. Their cells will then be transplanted to you after you receive a high dose of chemotherapy.

All stem cells transplant use a central venous catheter to put the healthy cells into your body. The catheter is a flexible tube that is surgically inserted into the large vein above your heart. The type of transplant you receive depends upon;

  • a. The type of cancer
  • b. If a matching donor is available
  • c. Health status of both you and the donor.

Your transplant physician will discuss the type of transplant that is best for you.